The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognisable for their pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside. The species is classified in the genus Panthera with the lion, leopard, jaguar and snow leopard. Tigers are apex predators, primarily preying on ungulates such as deer and bovids.
Tigers once ranged widely across Asia, from Turkey in the west to the eastern coast of Russia. Over the past 100 years, they have lost 93% of their historic range, and have been extirpated from southwest and central Asia, from the islands of Java and Bali, and from large areas of Southeast and Eastern Asia.
Tigers are among the most recognisable and popular of the world's charismatic megafauna. They have featured prominently in ancientmythology and folklore, and continue to be depicted in modern films and literature. They appear on many flags, coats of arms, and asmascots for sporting teams. The tiger is the national animal of Bangladesh, India, Malaysia and South Korea.
In 1758, Linnaeus described the tiger in his work Systema Naturae and gave it the scientific name Felis tigris. In 1929, the British taxonomist Reginald Innes Pocock subordinated the species under the genus Panthera using the scientific name Panthera tigris.
The word Panthera is probably of Oriental origin and retraceable to the Ancient Greek word panther, the Latin word panthera, the Old French word pantere, most likely meaning "the yellowish animal", or from pandarah meaning whitish-yellow. The derivation from Greekpan- ("all") and ther ("beast") may be folk etymology.
The specific epithet, tigris, as well as the common name, tiger, come from the Middle English tigre and the Old English tigras (a plural word), both used for the animal. These derive from the Old French tigre, itself a derivative of the Latin word tigris and the Greek wordtigris. The original source may have been the Persian tigra meaning pointed or sharp and the Avestan tigrhi meaning an arrow, perhaps referring to the speed with which a tiger launches itself at its prey.
The tiger's closest living relatives were previously thought to be the lion, leopard and jaguar, all of which are classified under the genus Panthera. Genetic analysis indicates that the tiger and the snow leoparddiverged from the other Panthera species about 2.88 million years ago, and that both species may be more closely related to each other than to the lion, leopard and jaguar.
The oldest remains of an extinct tiger relative, called Panthera zdanskyi or the Longdan tiger, have been found in the Gansu province of northwestern China. This species is considered to be a sister taxon to the extant tiger and lived about 2 million years ago, at the beginning of the Pleistocene.
The earliest fossils of true tigers are from Java, and are between 1.6 and 1.8 million years old. Distinct fossils are known from the early and middle Pleistocene deposits in China and Sumatra. A subspecies called the Trinil tiger (Panthera tigris trinilensis) lived about 1.2 million years ago and is known from fossils found at Trinil in Java.
Surviving subspecies of tiger
Bengal tiger(P. t. tigris), also called the Indian tiger
Lives in India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh, and is the most common subspecies. In 2011, the total adult population was estimated at 1,520–1,909 in India, 440 in Bangladesh, 155 in Nepal and 75 in Bhutan.In 2014, the population in India was estimated at 2,226,163–253 in Nepal and 103 in Bhutan as of 2015. It lives in alluvial grasslands, subtropical and tropical rainforests, scrub forests, wet and dry deciduous forests, and mangroves. It is the second-largest of the surviving subspecies. Males attain a total nose-to-tail length of 270 to 310 cm (110 to 120 in) and weigh between 180 to 258 kg (397 to 569 lb), while females range from 240 to 265 cm (94 to 104 in) and 100 to 160 kg (220 to 350 lb). In northern India and Nepal, the average is larger; males can weigh up to 235 kilograms (518 lb), while females average 140 kilograms (310 lb).Coat colour varies from light yellow to reddish yellow with black stripes.
Is found in Cambodia, China, Laos, Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam. In 2010 the total population was estimated at about 350 individuals.Their preferred habitat is forests in mountainous or hilly regions.Males average 108 inches (270 cm) in total length and weigh between 150–195 kg (331–430 lb), while females average 96 inches (240 cm) and 100–130 kg (220–290 lb).
· Southeast Asia: Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam; extinct in Cambodia and China
Malayan tiger (P. t. jacksoni)
Exclusively found in the southern part of the Malay Peninsula. The last native wild tiger in Singapore was shot dead in 1930. Was not considered a subspecies in its own right until a 2004 genetic analysis showed that they are distinct in mtDNA and micro-satellite sequencesfrom the Indochinese subspecies. As of 2014 the total population is estimated at fewer than 500 individuals, though a new report from September that year estimated it at between 250 and 340 individuals. Males range in total length from 190–280 cm (75–110 in) and weigh between 47.2 to 129.1 kg (104 to 285 lb), while females range from 180–260 cm (71–102 in) and 24 to 88 kg (53 to 194 lb).
· Southeast Asia: Malaysia; extinct in Thailand and Singapore.
Siberian tiger (P. t. altaica), also known as theAmur tiger
Inhabits the Amur-Ussuri region of Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsk Krai in far eastern Siberia, with the exception of a small population in Hunchun National Siberian Tiger Nature Reserve in northeastern China, near the border of North Korea. In 2005, there were 331–393 adult and subadult Siberian tigers in the region, with a breeding adult population of about 250 individuals. As of 2015, there an estimated population of 480-540 individuals in the Russian Far East. It is the largest subspecies and ranks among the largest felids ever to have existed. Males have a head and body length of between 190–230 cm (75–91 in) and weigh between 180 to 306 kg (397 to 675 lb), while females average 160–180 cm (63–71 in) and 100 to 167 kg (220 to 368 lb). Tail length is about 60–110 cm (24–43 in). Compared to other subspecies, Siberian tigers have thicker coats, paler hues, and fewer stripes in dark brown instead of black.
South China tiger (P. t. amoyensis), also known as the Amoyor Xiamen tiger
Is the most critically endangered subspecies of tiger, and one of the 10 most endangered animals in the world.Despite unconfirmed reports and some evidence of footprints, there has been no confirmed wild sighting in over 25 years, leading experts to consider it "functionally extinct", with the entire known population of roughly 65+ individuals held in captivity. It is the second-smallest subspecies. Males range in total length from 230–260 cm (91–102 in) and weigh between 130 to 180 kg (290 to 400 lb), while females range from 220–240 cm (87–94 in) and 100 to 110 kg (220 to 240 lb). The South China tiger is considered to be the most ancient of the tiger subspecies and is distinguished by a particularly narrow skull, long muzzle nose, rhombus-like stripes and vivid orange colour.
· East Asia: Extinct in the wild of China
Sumatran tiger (P. t. sumatrae)
Found only on the island of Sumatra, and is thus the last surviving of the three Indonesian island subspecies. Listed as a distinct subspecies as of 1998, when genetic testing revealed the presence of unique genetic markers, and is critically endangered As of 2014 the wild population is estimated at between 400 and 500, seen chiefly in the island's national parks. It is the smallest of all living tigers. Males range in total length from 220 to 255 cm (87 to 100 in) and weigh between 100 to 140 kg (220 to 310 lb), while females range between 215 to 230 cm (85 to 91 in) and 75 to 110 kg (165 to 243 lb).Their reduced size is an adaptation to the thick, dense forests and smaller prey in their native habitat. This subspecies also has the darkest coat, with more narrowly spaced stripes and a longer mane and beard.
· Southeast Asia: Indonesia
Extinct subspecies of tiger
Bali tiger (P. t. balica)
Was limited to the Indonesian island of Bali. Had a weight of 90–100 kg (200–220 lb) in males and 65–80 kg (143–176 lb) in females.Bali tigers were hunted to extinction; the last Bali tiger, an adult female, is thought to have been killed at Sumbar Kima, West Bali, on 27 September 1937, Southeast Asia: Extinct in Indonesia
Caspian tiger (P. t. virgata), also known as the Hyrcanian tiger or Turan tiger
Was found in the sparse forest habitats and riverine corridors west and south of the Caspian Sea and east through Central Asiainto the Takla-Makan desert of Xinjiang, and had been recorded in the wild until the early 1970s.The Siberian tiger is the genetically closest living relative of the Caspian tiger.
· East Asia: Extinct in China and Mongolia
· South Asia: Extinct in Afghanistan
Javan tiger (P. t. sondaica)
Was limited to the island of Java, and had been recorded until the mid-1970s.Javan tigers were larger than Bali tigers; males weighed 100–141 kg (220–311 lb) and females 75–115 kg (165–254 lb).After 1979, no more sightings were confirmed in the region of Mount Betiri.
· Southeast Asia: Extinct in Indonesia
In the wild, tigers mostly feed on large and medium-sixed animal, preffering native ungulates weighing at least 90 kg (200 lb). They typically have little or no deletirous effecr on their prey populations. Sambar deer, chital, barasingha, wild boar, gaur, niglai, and both water buffalo and domestic buffalo, in descending order of prefrence, are the tiger’s favoured prey in Tamil nadu, India. They also prey on other predators, including dogs, leopards, pythons, sloth bears, and crocodiles. In Siberia, the main prey species are Manchurian wapiti and wild boar followed by sika deer, moose, roe deer, and musk deer. Asiatic black bears and ussuri brown bears may also fall prey to tigers and they constitute up to 40.7 % of the diet of Siberian tigers depending on local condition and the bear population . In Sumatra, prey include sambar deer, muntjac, wild boar, Malayan tapir, and orangutan. In the former Caspian tiger’s range, prey included saiga antelope, camels,caucasian wisent, yak, and wild horses. Like many predators, tigers are oppurtunistic and may eat much smaller prey, such as monkeys, peafowl, and other ground-based birds, hares, porcupines, and fish
White tigers are more frequently bred in captivity, where the comparatively small gene pool can lead to inbreeding. This has given white tigers a greater likelihood of being born with physical defects, such as cleft palate, scoliosis(curvature of the spine), and strabismus (squint). Even apparently healthy white tigers generally do not live as long as their orange counterparts. Attempts have been made to cross white and orange tigers to remedy this, often mixing with other subspecies in the process.
Another recessive gene creates the "golden" or "golden tabby" colour variation, sometimes known as "strawberry".Golden tigers have thicker than usual light-gold fur, pale legs, and faint orange stripes. Few golden tigers are kept in captivity; they are invariably at least part Bengal.
1. 1. Tiger is classified in the same genus with, except
e. Snow leopard
2. The tiger is the national animal in…
e. Timor leste
3. What is the meaning of tigra?
4. Where was the earliest tiger fossils founded?
5. What Caspian’s tiger diet range?
6. What is tiger subspecies that is extinct?
a. Caspian Tiger
b. Malayan Tiger
c. Indochinese tiger
d. Siberian Tiger
e. Sumatran tiger
7. What is tiger’s genus?
8. What is tiger habitat range?, except
9. Golden Tiger is called…
10. What is the colour variation of tiger?
a. Black Tiger
b. Golden tiger
c. Orange tiger
d. Albino tiger
e. Grey tiger